Landsat spectral Band Information
Band 1 – blue (0.45-0.52) This short wavelength of light penetrates better than the other bands, and it is often the band of choice for monitoring aquatic ecosystems (mapping sediment in water, coral reef habitats, etc.). Unfortunately this is the "noisiest" of the Landsat bands since it is most susceptible to atmospheric scatter.
This has similar qualities to band 1 but not as extreme. The band was selected because it matches the wavelength for the green we see when looking at vegetation.
Since vegetation absorbs nearly all red light (it is sometimes called the chlorophyll absorption band) this band can be useful for distinguishing between vegetation and soil and in monitoring vegetation health.
near infrared (0.76-0.90)
Since water absorbs nearly all light at this wavelength water bodies appear very dark. This contrasts with bright reflectance for soil and vegetation so it is a good band for defining the water/land interface.
Short-wave Infrared (1.55-1 .75)
This band is very sensitive to moisture and is therefore used to monitor vegetation and soil moisture. It is also good at differentiating between clouds and snow.
thermal infrared (10.40-12.50)
This is a thermal band, which means it can be used to measure surface temperature. Band 6 is primarily used for geological applications but it is sometime used to measure plant heat stress. This is also used to differentiate clouds from bright soils as clouds tend to be very cold. The resolution of band 6 (60m) is half of the other bands.
This band is also used for Hydrothermally altered rocks associated with mineral deposits, as well as for soil and geology mapping.
15 meter resolution, sharper image definition. Used for spatial resolution ENHANCEMENT