Monday, November 23, 2015

Aurichalcite with Calcite E Vs Blue Opal

AURICHALCITE with CACLITE Southwest Mine, Bisbee, Warren District, Mule Mountains, Cochise County, Arizona, USA

Blue Opals


Sunday, November 22, 2015

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Resolution Enhancement

03Surface Interpolation

This exercise will guide you through a Method to generate a New finer resolution of a DEM

1. Add the dem grid to ArcMap. Check if the grid has a 30 meter cell size and a UTM projection.

2. Enable Spatial Analyst extension From Customize > Extension.

3. Open ArcToolBox >>  Data Management Tools toolbox / Raster Processing toolset >>Resample.

DEM Resample
DEM  Resample

We now try to resample the 30 meter DEM to finer resolutions. 
First we need to convert the DEM grid into elevation points. 

1. Spatial Analyst Tools toolbox / Extraction toolset >> Sample.

DEM Sampling
DEM Sampling

2. Specify dem 30m as the input raster and as the input location raster, pnt30m_table.dbf as the output, and NEAREST as the resample technique

3. From the ArcMap Layer Panel, right-click on pnt30_table.dbf and select Display XY Data.... Make sure x is in the X field, y in the Y field, and dem30 in the Z field. 

DEM Display
DEM Display points

4. Export the point event data to a shapefile to make them permanent. select Data / Export Data, and save the output as pnt30.shp.

5. Use the spatial interpolation techniques to generate DEMs from the point data set we just created. The first method we use is Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW). 

ArcToolbox/Spatial Analyst Tools/Interpolation.

DEM Interpolation
DEM Interpolation 

6. The DEM automatically added to ArcMap uses a symbology that is difficult to show the subtle variations in the DEM. Change the symbology of the DEM layer from "classified" to "stretched". With this display option, the DEM is displayed as a grayscale map that shows the detail of the terrain.

Converting & Displaying DEM into DTM (Digital Terrain Model)>>

Saturday, November 21, 2015

Black Opal & Sparkling Druzy Agate


Wednesday, November 18, 2015

Mexican Fire Opal


Rainbow Druzy Agate


Opal in Ironstone, Queensland, Australia.

Opal in Ironstone, Queensland, Australia.


Tuesday, November 17, 2015

The surface geology of Africa

the surface geology of Africa

The map shows the lithological properties of the surface geology of Africa. Lithology describes the mineral composition and structure of geological material which is based on rock formation (i.e. whether it is igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic) and mineralogy (e.g. carbonate, silicic, mafic). This map is a good proxy for soil parent material as it only reflects surface conditions and not the underlying bedrock. It should be noted that the general nature of this map means that at a local level, the conditions may be quite different to that shown. Other than the terms alluvium (deposited by water), aeolian (deposited by wind), organic (peat deposits) and colluvium (transported by gravity), all of which denote recent deposition, the age of material is not indicated. The preponderance of wind-blown sediments across Africa is striking as are the volcanic areas.

Monday, November 16, 2015

The Breakup of Pangaea

Pangaea (sometimes spelled Pangea), the most recent of a series of supercontinents on Earth, formed about 270 million years ago and broke apart about 200 million years ago. At this time most of the dry land on Earth was joined into one huge landmass that covered nearly a third of the planet's surface. The giant ocean that surrounded the continent is known as Panthalassa.
The movement of Earth's tectonic plates formed Pangaea and ultimately broke it apart.

Pangaea existed during the Permian and Triassic geological time periods, which were times of great change. The Permian mass extinction, which wiped out an estimated 96% species about 248 million years ago, was a major event during this time.

opalized fossils


Saturday, November 14, 2015

Precious Opal with an "eye" effect

07 Precious Opal with an "eye" effect

Description:Recently, the Wello (Wollo) locality in Ethiopia has produced some exceptional precious Opal specimens and gemstones. The highly desirable "Contra Luz" play of color and large "harlequin" patterning that can be seen in the top gems and specimens is comparable to the best of Mexican Opals and even resembles color patterns seen in Australian gems. Opal is one of those minerals that looks as beautiful and impressive when it is opaque as when it is water clear. The amazing range of this material (considering the simplistic chemistry) makes it a cool mineral, and that's saying a lot considering the species does not even have any crystal form !! This piece features a very attractive section of Precious Opal with a notable "eyeball" effect that is highlighted by flashes of gold, yellow, orange, green and blue. Despite the smaller size, this piece has great color and form, and could end up being a great bargain for one of you lucky bidders out there who do not have a piece of this material in your collection. The following was taken from the article on mindat by Jon Young from last year: "This newly discovered Opal found in the Welo Amhara Regional State Highland plateau 2.500  3.200 meters above sea level of Ethiopia is a new find that is quickly gaining the attention of the opal community. This opal was the hit of the recent Tucson international gem show. Welo opal requires a mountain of patience and some special cutting techniques but the finished result is every bit as stable as the better known Australian opals. The color is brilliant and rivals any top grade opal in the world. Most have a brightness level of at least 4 to 5 on the brightness scale with hot neon multi-color and multiple pattern mix. Welo opal is not generally classified as contra luz opal although I have seen a few. The color play is face up and in a lot of cases, as bright in artificial indoor light as it is in direct sunlight. This opal just loves any light source. This is hydrophane opal which when soaked in water allows the base color to clear up...sometimes highlighting the play-of-color, sometimes making it vanish. The best trait of the Welo hydrophane opal is that when it's dry and polished it can be one of the brightest opals in the world. From my experience, the Welo opal is as stable as the best of all that I have cut in the last 10 years. It can take twice as long to cut a finished stone, but the visual rewards are well worth the time. Different types of opals require specialty care for the beauty you enjoy... Welo opal is no different. No chemicals or detergents...If soaked in water, it will take one to two weeks to completely dry out and return to its original beautiful state. Do not try and accelerate the drying by any artificial means. Do not use ultrasonic cleaning for any opals. Gondar and Wollo (Welo) are not regarded as desert at all  it is on the Abyssinian highland plateau of Amhara Proper, Amhara Regional State. The Welo opal is found in the same type of geological formations as the Australian opal. Welo opal is the most stable opal find in Ethiopia to date. Ethiopian Opals are region specific in character traits just like Australian opals. The Ethiopian Government does not own any mines. All land is owned by the government: In Amhara it is administrated by the Regional State who does not allow mining by others than registered and licensed farmer co-operatives. 
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