Pearls are the most valuable of all organic gemstones, and have been prized for 6000 years. Pearls chemical makeup varies by region and environmental factors, but the basic formula is CaCO3. Pearls form through irritants entering specific species of mollusks (oysters, clams, muscles, etc), while the irritant can be a grain of sand or a parasite, the process is the same for pearls. The irritant is coated in CaCO3(mother of pearl) to make it less irritating to the mollusk.
Saturday, December 5, 2015
Available for PC and MAC as Plugin for
Photoshop CC (from v 14.2)
The 3D Map Generator – GEO“ is especially created for illustrating complex geographical 3D maps. In opposite to the current „3D Map Generator 2“ the new „3D Map Generator – GEO“ can be used to create big 3D maps in smaller map scales. With a few clicks it is possible to generate isometric 3D maps in 3 different orientations with heights and depths in the terrain. As basic shapes there can be used text layers, vector shapes, Smart Objects or one of 52 vector country shapes. For designing the map there are different new tools, textures, effects, brushes and 37 icons and elements available. The generated 3D maps can be edited and redesigned for unlimited times. No layers will be flattened. Of course it is also possible to put own textures onto the surface and to use own brushes, effects, icons or other elements.
Tuesday, December 1, 2015
Monday, November 23, 2015
Sunday, November 22, 2015
This exercise will guide you through a Method to generate a New finer resolution of a DEM.
1. Add the dem grid to ArcMap. Check if the grid has a 30 meter cell size and a UTM projection.
2. Enable Spatial Analyst extension From Customize > Extension.
3. Open ArcToolBox >> Data Management Tools toolbox / Raster Processing toolset >>Resample.
We now try to resample the 30 meter DEM to finer resolutions.
First we need to convert the DEM grid into elevation points.
1. Spatial Analyst Tools toolbox / Extraction toolset >> Sample.
2. Specify dem 30m as the input raster and as the input location raster, pnt30m_table.dbf as the output, and NEAREST as the resample technique.
3. From the ArcMap Layer Panel, right-click on pnt30_table.dbf and select Display XY Data.... Make sure x is in the X field, y in the Y field, and dem30 in the Z field.
|DEM Display points|
4. Export the point event data to a shapefile to make them permanent. select Data / Export Data, and save the output as pnt30.shp.
5. Use the spatial interpolation techniques to generate DEMs from the point data set we just created. The first method we use is Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW).
ArcToolbox/Spatial Analyst Tools/Interpolation.
6. The DEM automatically added to ArcMap uses a symbology that is difficult to show the subtle variations in the DEM. Change the symbology of the DEM layer from "classified" to "stretched". With this display option, the DEM is displayed as a grayscale map that shows the detail of the terrain.
Converting & Displaying DEM into DTM (Digital Terrain Model)>>
Saturday, November 21, 2015
Wednesday, November 18, 2015
Tuesday, November 17, 2015
The map shows the lithological properties of the surface geology of Africa. Lithology describes the mineral composition and structure of geological material which is based on rock formation (i.e. whether it is igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic) and mineralogy (e.g. carbonate, silicic, mafic). This map is a good proxy for soil parent material as it only reflects surface conditions and not the underlying bedrock. It should be noted that the general nature of this map means that at a local level, the conditions may be quite different to that shown. Other than the terms alluvium (deposited by water), aeolian (deposited by wind), organic (peat deposits) and colluvium (transported by gravity), all of which denote recent deposition, the age of material is not indicated. The preponderance of wind-blown sediments across Africa is striking as are the volcanic areas.
Monday, November 16, 2015
Pangaea (sometimes spelled Pangea), the most recent of a series of supercontinents on Earth, formed about 270 million years ago and broke apart about 200 million years ago. At this time most of the dry land on Earth was joined into one huge landmass that covered nearly a third of the planet's surface. The giant ocean that surrounded the continent is known as Panthalassa.
The movement of Earth's tectonic plates formed Pangaea and ultimately broke it apart.
Pangaea existed during the Permian and Triassic geological time periods, which were times of great change. The Permian mass extinction, which wiped out an estimated 96% species about 248 million years ago, was a major event during this time.
Saturday, November 14, 2015
Precious Opal with an "eye" effect
Description:Recently, the Wello (Wollo) locality in Ethiopia has produced some exceptional precious Opal specimens and gemstones. The highly desirable "Contra Luz" play of color and large "harlequin" patterning that can be seen in the top gems and specimens is comparable to the best of Mexican Opals and even resembles color patterns seen in Australian gems. Opal is one of those minerals that looks as beautiful and impressive when it is opaque as when it is water clear. The amazing range of this material (considering the simplistic chemistry) makes it a cool mineral, and that's saying a lot considering the species does not even have any crystal form !! This piece features a very attractive section of Precious Opal with a notable "eyeball" effect that is highlighted by flashes of gold, yellow, orange, green and blue. Despite the smaller size, this piece has great color and form, and could end up being a great bargain for one of you lucky bidders out there who do not have a piece of this material in your collection. The following was taken from the article on mindat by Jon Young from last year: "This newly discovered Opal found in the Welo Amhara Regional State Highland plateau 2.500 3.200 meters above sea level of Ethiopia is a new find that is quickly gaining the attention of the opal community. This opal was the hit of the recent Tucson international gem show. Welo opal requires a mountain of patience and some special cutting techniques but the finished result is every bit as stable as the better known Australian opals. The color is brilliant and rivals any top grade opal in the world. Most have a brightness level of at least 4 to 5 on the brightness scale with hot neon multi-color and multiple pattern mix. Welo opal is not generally classified as contra luz opal although I have seen a few. The color play is face up and in a lot of cases, as bright in artificial indoor light as it is in direct sunlight. This opal just loves any light source. This is hydrophane opal which when soaked in water allows the base color to clear up...sometimes highlighting the play-of-color, sometimes making it vanish. The best trait of the Welo hydrophane opal is that when it's dry and polished it can be one of the brightest opals in the world. From my experience, the Welo opal is as stable as the best of all that I have cut in the last 10 years. It can take twice as long to cut a finished stone, but the visual rewards are well worth the time. Different types of opals require specialty care for the beauty you enjoy... Welo opal is no different. No chemicals or detergents...If soaked in water, it will take one to two weeks to completely dry out and return to its original beautiful state. Do not try and accelerate the drying by any artificial means. Do not use ultrasonic cleaning for any opals. Gondar and Wollo (Welo) are not regarded as desert at all it is on the Abyssinian highland plateau of Amhara Proper, Amhara Regional State. The Welo opal is found in the same type of geological formations as the Australian opal. Welo opal is the most stable opal find in Ethiopia to date. Ethiopian Opals are region specific in character traits just like Australian opals. The Ethiopian Government does not own any mines. All land is owned by the government: In Amhara it is administrated by the Regional State who does not allow mining by others than registered and licensed farmer co-operatives.
Wednesday, October 21, 2015
Egyptian Mining Tenders 2016 for several sites of different Metal and non-metal Ore deposits.(Exploration and Exploitation)
For Small and large scale mining and investments in Egypt. (Eastern desert and Sinai).
For more Information and Contact.
Sunday, August 16, 2015
Monday, July 27, 2015
Extraction of land-surface parameters and objects from DEMs
Edited by TOMISLAV HENGL Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics University of Amsterdam Amsterdam, The Netherlands .
HANNES I. REUTER Institute for Environment and Sustainability DG Joint Research Centre Land Management and Natural Hazards Unit – European Commission Ispra, Italy
Saturday, July 25, 2015
"The effectiveness of high-resolution topography (0.5 m DTM) derived by LIDAR data in the recognition of geomorphological features in the mountainous landscapes (slides courtesy of Paolo Tarolli)".
These are slides of a well known presentation he gave in several conferences, seminars, and lectures since 2006.
Friday, July 24, 2015
After you clearly understood the problem that needs to be solved, you need to determine or choose the right imagery to be obtained for extracting the information we need. There a large number of data types are available to suit various needs.
1. If we are studying thrust belts, we may wish to order 1:1,000,000 B/W single-band Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) images with 80 m resolution and large area coverage (185 × 185 km) to make a mosaic of part of a continent.
2. If we are doing a basin analysis, then a color MSS image at 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 should be acceptable.
3. If we are mapping details of lithologic and facies changes, or vegetation patterns and wildlife habitats, we can use color SPOT multispectral (XS) imagery with 20 m resolution and 60 × 60 km (vertical view) coverage at a scale of 1:100,000 or 1:50,000, or Color Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery, with 30 m resolution, and covering 185 × 185 km at a scale of 1:100,000 would also work.
4. For mapping alteration associated with mineral deposits, the ideal choice is high resolution (1–10 m) airborne hyperspectral imagery. If that is not available or is too expensive and the area is large and remote, we may wish to use Landsat TM for a reconnaissance look.
5. If we want to know where a well was drilled several years ago in a poorly mapped part of the world, we chose a SPOTP high resolution (10 m) panchromatic image or 5 m resolution.
6. For very fine detail, GeoEye or WorldView images have approximately > 1 m resolution. These can be enlarged to > 1:25,000 and still appear clear and sharp.
The following factors should be taken into account when ordering data (Dekker, 1993).
One factor to keep in mind is that the smaller the area covered, the higher the cost per unit area. Airphotos or airborne imagery will almost always cost more per unit area than satellite images.
If the imagery is needed immediately, one can screen grab free but rather low-quality imagery from internet sources such as Google Earth or purchase off-the-shelf data from a government agency or vendor. Large image archives exist, and data can often be obtained quickly. Purchasing custom images from vendors and consultants, or processing digital data in your own shop can take up to several weeks.
A- Large area coverage can be obtained using weather satellites such as GOES (covers a full hemisphere), the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, which covers a 2700 km swath on the Earth’s surface, or the SeaWIFS instrument, with a 1502–2801 km swath width.
B- Moderate size areas can be covered using some handheld Shuttle (and other mission) photos (variable area coverage), as well as Landsat images (MSS and TM), which cover 185 × 185 km. Systems that cover 50 × 50 to 500 × 500 km include MK-4 photos (120–270 km), KATE-200 photos (180 × 180 km), KFA-1000 photos (68–85 km), and the SPOT systems (XS and P) that cover 60 × 60 km.
Satellite images generally cover larger areas than airborne photos or images, and the synoptic view is one of their greatest advantages.
C- For field or local studies, airborne surveys or small area satellite images will save cost and/or provide more detail. Recent satellites, such as Worldview 2, 3 and GeoEye-1, have very high resolution (up to 31 cm for the panchromatic sensor and 1.65 m for the multispectral instrument) and cover correspondingly smaller areas (16.4 and 15.2 km swaths, respectively).
The scale of the final image will to some extent be a function of the sensor system resolution, in that one cannot enlarge, say, an image with 80 m resolution to a scale of 1:100,000 without the image becoming “pixelated,” that is, breaking up into the individual resolution elements that appear as an array of colored squares.
5. Nighttime Surveys
Thermal and radar surveys can be flown effectively at night because neither system relies on reflected sunlight: the radar instrument illuminates the surface by providing its own energy source, and thermal energy is radiated from the surface.
Predawn thermal imagery reveals, among other things, lithologic contrasts related to differing rock and soil densities or color tones (light versus dark). Nighttime thermal imagery can reveal shallow groundwater and moist soil (generally warmer than background), can detect oil spills on water, and can help map underground coal mine fires. Because radar illuminates the ground with microwaves, it can be flown at night to map oil spills, for example, or during polar night to map the movement of ice floes that could threaten an offshore oil rig or platform.
6. Seasonal/Repetitive Coverage
Certain seasons are better for specific surveys. For example, a geologic mapping project in an area covered by temperate forest would see more of the ground in spring before deciduous plant leaf-out or in the fall, after leaves have dropped.
High sun elevation angle (summer) provides images with the best color saturation, which can be useful when mapping lithologies in low contrast areas. On the other hand, low sun angle images (flown during the morning or in winter), especially with a light snow cover, enhance geologic features in low-relief terrain.
If repetitive coverage is needed to monitor natural (e.g., flooding, ice floes) or man-made (e.g., drilling, roads) changes, it is often most cost effective to use satellites because of their regular repeat cycles. Repeated aircraft surveys provide more detail but are much more costly.
Low-relief terrain may require low sun angle or grazing radar imagery to enhance subtle topographic and structural features.
On the other hand, high-relief terrain poses the potential problem of large shadowed areas that can obscure important areas or details. These areas should be flown during mid-day or using radar with a steep depression angle to minimize shadows.
8. Vegetation Cover
Color infrared images are very sensitive to changes in vegetation type or vigor, since the peak reflection for vegetation is in the near infrared region. Combinations of infrared and visible wavelengths have been used to map changes in vegetation related to underlying rock types and even hydrocarbon seepage (Abrams et al., 1984).
Lidar which will also provide an image of the top of the vegetation canopy that looks like topography. There are some image processing methods, called “vegetation suppression” techniques, which appear to remove vegetation and reveal subtle changes in the underlying soil or bedrock. These algorithms tend to remove the reflectance attributed to vegetation and enhance the remaining wavelengths.
9. Water-Covered Areas
Shorter wavelengths (blue and green light) penetrate water farther than longer wavelengths. The euphotic or light-penetrating zone is known to extend to 30 m in clear water (Purser, 1973).
Infrared light, which has longer wavelengths than visible light, is absorbed by water and does not provide information on bottom features.
Landsat TM, with its blue band, is excellent for mapping shallow water features such as shoals, reefs, or geologic structures. Likewise, true color and special water penetration films such as Kodak Aerocolor SO-224 have excellent water penetration capabilities (Reeves et al., 1975). Side-scan sonar is available for shallow and deep water mapping, and produces images of the sea bottom reflectance using acoustic energy, much like radar uses microwave energy to produce an image.
Abrams, M.J., J.E. Conel, H.R. Lang. 1984. The Joint NASA/Geosat Test Case Project Sections 11 and 12. Tulsa: AAPG Bookstore.
Dekker, F. 1993. What is the right remote sensing tool for oil exploration? Earth Obs. Mag. 2: 28–35.
Junge, C.E. 1963. Air Chemistry and Radioactivity. New York: Academic Press: 382 p.
Purser, B.H. 1973. The Persian Gulf. New York: Springer-Verlag: 1–9.
Reeves, R.G., A. Anson, D. Landen. 1975. Manual of Remote Sensing, 1st ed, Chap. 6. Falls Church: American Society of Photogrammetry.
U.S. Bureau of Land Management. 1983. Aerial Photography Specifications. Denver: U.S. Government Printing Office: 15 p.
Tuesday, July 21, 2015
Monday, July 20, 2015
Saturday, July 18, 2015
Seraphinite is a stone of spiritual enlightenment said to be among the most important stones discovered for connecting and communicating with higher energies. It facilitates conscious awareness on many higher planes, is excellent for accessing self-healing, promotes living from the heart. It cleanses the aura, strengthens, activates and balances all chakras. Causes old patterns of disease or imbalance to fall away, thus creating space for new patterns of well-being to form.
Friday, July 17, 2015
Gold and silver Scheherazade's Palace ring featuring diamonds, mosaic with turquoise tesserae and a blue tourmaline with an inversely engraved intaglio.
By Rachel Garrahan in New York
Scheherazade, the legendary Persian queen, was famed for her storytelling prowess. Enthralling the murderous King Shahryar with tales of courage, mischief and romance over 1,001 nights, she avoided death at his hands and captured his heart in the process. These stories form the basis of the book The Arabian Nights, which has charmed readers around the world for centuries.
Leave it to Sevan Biçakçi, a master of storytelling in jewellery form, to recreate the Persian queen's palace in a ring. Featuring two of the Turkish master-jeweller's signature techniques - intaglio carving and micro-mosaic - the queen's palace rises majestically beneath blue tourmaline, its domes echoed in the dramatic setting of turquoise tesserae, diamonds, blackened silver and gold.
Describing his jewellery as "Byzantine empire meets Alice in Wonderland", Sevan Biçakçi is famously secretive about the techniques used to create his fantastical pieces. (Not even Maria,The Jewellery Editor, was allowed to film Sevan's workshop during her visit to Istanbul.) Drawing heavily on the historical and cultural influences of his native Turkey, his work is unlike anything you might see in a museum - or contemporary jewellery boutique for that matter.
Instead you are left to wonder at the miniature marvels contained below the extraordinary domes of his unique pieces. Inspired by the impressive dome of Istanbul's Hagia Sophia, built in 537AD, the cupola and outlying architecture of this historic monument has been sheltered for eternity beneath a smoky topaz, beautifully contrasted with large rose-cut and fancy colour diamonds set luxuriously around the shank.
Nature is another recurring source of inspiration for Biçakçi, brought to life in his ladybird ring - creatures he describes as good-luck bugs - that appear to scurry beneath an inversely carved smoky topaz. These scarlet creatures are richly matched with the turquoise of the micro-mosaic leaf that wraps itself around the finger.
For those who prefer the escapism of a bright blue sky, his one-of-a-kind aquamarine ring depicts doves - symbols of peace and freedom - in flight against a dazzling backdrop of 3.76 carats of diamonds; yet another mesmerizing option from the enchanted Byzantine world of Biçakçi, for the woman who wants to tell a unique story on her finger.
Sevan's work is available in many stores across the world including the Grand Bazaar and Zorlu Center in Istanbul, Harvey Nichols and Talisman Gallery in London, Strasburgo in Tokyo, and Barneys New York stores across the US.